Intentional Limit Breaks in Video Games


When building consumer software, it’s a widely held belief that the software shouldn’t crash, shouldn’t hang (or ignore user input), and should generally remain “in control.” Users don’t like software that crashes and loses their progress, and they don’t react well to software that freezes: they tend to spam buttons, making the problem worse.

This is just as important and much harder for video games. Video games are among the most complex and demanding software being produced commercially, and they’re likely the most complex and demanding software the average consumer will ever run. They have to simulate a large and engaging game world, while also rendering the world and all its graphical effects to the screen, at 60 frames per second: 16.5ms per frame. They also need to load vast quantities of data from unreliable consumer grade storage devices, and some games set themselves the task of eliminating load screens and streaming the data live. Multiplayer games must also coordinate complex real time protocols with game servers. Additionally, games only recently started to take full advantage of the extra cores modern CPUs have.

Professionals have a somewhat different perspective. In this context, “professional” means people who work as “software technicians” in a professional capacity, even if their job and expertise is not necessarily software. This would be 3D graphics experts, audio technicians, data scientists, and programmers. Their software is designed for professional use, and its professional users have different standards. Software which crashes is bad, but managable: just save a bunch. Software which hangs is par for the course: the tools of programmers regularly use entirely non-interactive user interfaces (like CLIs).

But let’s address the “in control” issue. Consumer grade software tends to have limiters on it. It will only do so much so fast, because if it went faster or did more it would be prone to crashes or freezes. Professional grade software has no limiters. If you throw too much data at it, it’ll happily spend 14 hours chugging away, or it’ll happily consume all available system resources doing whatever stupid thing you told it to. Professional software assumes you, the user, is a professional, and that you know better than the software.1

The same limits can be easily found in games as well. The most common are “physics limits.” Physics systems are common in games looking for some easy realism, but even the most efficient physics system can only calculate so many physical interactions in the 16.5ms, so games will put a limit on the number of interactable physical objects. Some limit them in level design–designers can only place so many in the same scene–or by number (trying to dynamically spawn more than the limit removes old objects). If the physics system takes too long, the frame rate of the game will slow down, producing a bad play experience2. Almost every game has stress tested the level size, the physics system, the number of AI agents, and the number of human players to find the theoretical maximum allowed, and then places hard limits to prevent the game state from going out bounds and degrading the play experience.

But what if there were games that didn’t do that. What if there were (pardon the phrase) “professional” games that didn’t have those limits and let you do whatever stupid thing you wanted. What are those games like?

Path of Exile

Path of Exile is an action RPG developed by Grinding Gear Games as a spiritual successor to Diablo 2. It features always online top down 3D action backed by an incredibly complex and detailed combat system. Although the broad strokes are very familiar, it has some surprises, but the real draw is the detail and consistency of the system. Path of Exile’s designers see the combat system and accompanying character creation and advancement system as integral to the game experience, and the true gameplay of Path of Exile is arguably not killing monsters but building and optimizing characters. The process of theory-crafting a new and innovative build, creating the character in game, experimenting with variations, and sharing your discovers with other players is core to the replayability of the game. The system is so complex that even experienced players haven’t explored it fully, and don’t fully understand the system in its entirety.

Path of Exile is a complex system, so breaking it is not very hard. The system breaking is still considered a problem by the developers, so they tend to fix the issues, and prevent these problems. They usually leave the “bug” in the game for at least a while, because generally you can only hurt yourself with these setup.

One of the easiest ways to “break” the game is by killing your FPS. There are a couple of ways to trigger abilities in the game, and for a while, these triggers had no cooldown. You could use these triggers to activate way way more abilities per second than the developers expected, and by using trigger graphically intense spells in this way, you can shred your FPS. You can also use effects that trigger on kill and are strong enough to kill neighboring enemies to kill very large numbers of enemies instantly in a single frame, triggering hundreds of ability effects, and causing the game to hang on that single frame for up to a second before play resumes.

The solution was to add a cooldown, limiting the number of abilities that can be cast per frame. There was, however, a second more insidious way of breaking the game. Although the frame rate issue was under control, the “hit-rate” problem wasn’t. Although the number of abilities was much reduced, there were some abilities that caused many “hits” per spell cast, and which persisted, causing that number of hits per second for up to 10 seconds. By constantly triggering those abilities, you can reach a very high number of hits per second. This, in and of itself, would not be a problem: The game is well optimized for hits as they are the main way of doing damage. The problem is with a particular effect that happens on hit, “Poison”3.

It is not enough to simply defeat the monsters in Path of Exile. We must now turn our fight to the game server itself.

Poison is simple, you hit the enemy a couple of times, they gain a poison stack every time you hit them, and each poison stack does damage and has duration independent of each other. There is also an effect that reads, “5% increased Poison Duration for each Poison you have inflicted [in the last 4 seconds].” Because the build inflicts a stack of poison in hit, and it constantly hits extremely fast, it builds up more poison stacks than the developers ever expected you to have, and it builds them up on every single enemy in range. It is not abundantly clear exactly why this is a problem for the game server, but it is. It’s possible that the server simply can’t handle that many Poison stacks and all the spell casts at the same time, the game simulation slows down, and the server gets killed by a crash detector for taking too long on a single frame. It’s also possible that all the poison stack data has to be pushed to the game client, and that if the client takes too long accepting all the data, the game server assumes something has gone wrong, and crashes itself. Either way, the instance you were in is gone, any resources you spent opening the area are consumed and not returned, and anybody connected to the instance (you and up to 5 friends) are disconnected in what the game calls an “Unexpected Disconnect”, but which everybody involved should have seen coming.

Although this build is incredibly strong and very easy to both build and play, it simply isn’t viable because it constantly crashes the game servers. Attempts to mitigate this by introducing previously unused (in this build) on kill effects do not help it very much. Because of the server architecture of the game, the crash is isolated, and only hurts you. It doesn’t affect other player’s instances.

In fairness to Path of Exile, this build is almost designed to break the game and crash servers, and most builds and most players don’t stress the game anywhere near this much. However, the game still lets you do this, and trusts that if you make a character that crashes the game servers, you’ll know what you’re getting into. Nonetheless, theorycrafters have to take into account what the game client and the game server can handle, because the developers won’t always be looking over your shoulder making sure you aren’t breaking anything.


Minecraft is well known for a lot of things (sandbox-style construction, RPG-like combat progression, infinite exploration across 3 worlds, 9 year olds), but also for its Turing-completeness: using redstone, you can implement logic gates from NOT all the way up to a full computer. It’s a difficult medium to work in: there’s no native copy and paste, so you have to manually build everything, and the tick rate low, so the resulting computer is very slow, but there’s another consideration to make, one that isn’t part of the game design.

The intended design is pretty simple: signals and inverters. However, Minecraft is an infinite game. The game world is split into vertical chunks. Chunks are stored individually on disk, and streamed into the game live. You can see this happen if you run the game on a slow disk: moving quickly will quickly get you to the edge of loaded chunks and the game simply doesn’t render chunks it hasn’t loaded, and shows empty space instead. Of course, if a chunk isn’t loaded, the game simulation can’t run all different simulations, including redstone. Redstone isn’t very compact, so it’s easy to accidentally build a computer larger than normally loaded zone. Even if it’s mostly in the loaded area, computers are generally not very resistant to suddenly losing bits of themselves. You also need to be right next to the computer to work, so actually using the computer to automate your remote bases, or something, is not possible.

There are 2 solutions. The first is to adapt your computer design to limit its horizontal foot print, pushing components above and below ground rather than spreading across the landscape. This still limits the ultimate size of your computer, and specifically the maximum line size. You aren’t going to be building a 32 bit computer in Minecraft (not that you would necessarily want to). In this context, implementation details in the game engine seriously impact on your gameplay, and your designs. The game doesn’t limit the mount of redstone you can use, or its complexity, but you need to work within unstated restrictions to make anything larger than a trivial circuit. It’s really cool that this capability is in the game, but you have to pay attention to a lot of unspoken technical limitations rather than the intended game design.

The other solution is using mods to allow you to force the server to always simulate those chunks. Eventually, you’ll run into the limit of the Minecraft server’s ability to simulate chunks, but this limit is also explored with the player limit: the server has to simulate all the chunks around every player. The Minecraft server has a default player limit, but it’s well understood that this is just an average, and weaker than average servers may need to lower the limit, and much stronger servers (more RAM, SSDs, good CPUs) can raise the limit substantially. Of course, splitting the client and server processing onto separate machines is a good idea, although thanks to modern GPUs (and the fact that the Minecraft standalone client just uses the server under the hood), it likely doesn’t matter too much.

Dwarf Fortress

Dwarf Fortress is an interesting and Fun game about designating a fortress and guiding your small army of dwarves to build, excavate, and construct, with the ultimate goal of surviving in an environment as hostile as you want it to be. It’s played on a 3D voxel grid much like Minecraft, but where Minecraft is infinite, but with reasonably few simulation aspects, Dwarf Fortress is finite, but vastly more complex simulation aspects. Dwarf Fortress reports 2 FPS numbers, graphical FPS and simulation FPS. Graphically, Dwarf Fortress is very simple, so keeping graphical FPS capped is easy. Dwarf Fortress’ simulation is frame locked, and the game involves a lot of waiting, so maximizing simulation FPS makes the game go very fast and makes the waiting easier. To avoid overshooting in time, and to avoid over-consuming CPU resources, simulation FPS is usually capped at 200, but very quickly dips below it as the game gets more complicated, and the simulation more CPU intensive. Late in the game, the simulation gets very slow, and the player base aggressively seeks out methods of optimizing their game installation and gameplay to get the game to run at a reasonable pace.

One of the biggest contributors to simulation time is actually map size. It seems like large portions of map has to be by the simulation code visited in some respect, so larger maps are slower. Another major contributor is number of allied dwarves. Each dwarf is a very complex actor in the world, capable of most gameplay relevant actions, but also influenced by physiological and psychological simulations. They’re constantly moving, so they regularly pathfind around the map. The game caps the number of dwarves in any given game at 200, but that is configurable. Unfortunately, the number of animals is not capped, so it’s possible to enact a “catsplosion”, rapidly breeding cats, then releasing them into the world to massively reduce your own simulation FPS.

Of course, all these dwarves and animals and enemies need to move around the game world, for which they use pathfinding. Pathfinding tends to be slower on larger and more complex maps, so players will limit the amount of area they’ll excavate, or block off areas they don’t need any more just to speed up pathfinding.

Water is also very slow to simulate, especially water features which generate mist, making them something of a status symbol: to have one in your game is a sign that you either don’t care about simulation FPS, or have such a powerful computer that a water feature is no big deal.

Of course, Dwarf Fortress also features complex manufacturing chains and many relevant items which can sit in stockpiles, in bins, and be carried around by actors. Items on the ground impact pathfinding, and large numbers of items makes it harder for the game to calculate hauling and stockpile management, so minimizing the items you generate, and destroying items you don’t need, is a good way of improving your simulation FPS.4

These techniques, and the overarching desire for better FPS, have shaped the community perception heavily, and guides and blueprints for Dwarf Fortress almost always consider the performance characteristics of their advice and designs. However, in moment to moment gameplay, it’s not terribly important. Players are usually consumed by shorter term issues, like feeding and growing their fortress, to let long term concerns like end game FPS to concern them.


Factorio is yet another simulation game, and like Dwarf Fortress, it’s also frame-locked, but it’s more graphically rich than Dwarf Fortress, and locks graphical FPS and simulation FPS together. Where Dwarf Fortress is playable at low simulation FPS and high graphical FPS (and it’s pausable, allowing you to easily issue commands even in heavily overloaded forts,) Factorio at low FPS is almost unplayable. You control a single character (unlike Dwarf Fortress, where you are an ethereal overlord), and the character must be present at a part of your factory to issue commands to it, so low FPS means your factory will produce items slowly, your research will go slowly, and your character and commands will react slowly.

This makes FPS a somewhat more pressing issue. Luckily, the Factorio developers are aware of this, and they take game optimization very seriously, and provide in game tools that players can turn to if they reach a scale where performance truly matters. Most players may care about performance, but don’t need to consider it seriously at the scale they play at.

Factorio is a game primarily about mining resources from the ground, transporting the resources to factories for refining, taking those materials through several cycles of refinement, assembly, and intermediate products, before producing highly refined materials that science labs can use to do science, advancing your research, and ultimately allowing you to launch a rocket into space5. The research can improve every aspect of that process, and provide quality of life upgrades to you personally, making almost the entire tech tree worthwhile. However, you can easily complete the tech tree without even glancing at the FPS counter, so only serious players who are competing with themselves and others to produce the maximum amount of research possible, even when that research isn’t useful anymore, to see who can build the best factory.

One major feature of Factorio is its enemies. The enemies are attracted to the pollution your factory produces, and attack in waves, necessitating the creation of automated defenses, an ammo production factory, walls, etc. However, enemies are pretty FPS intensive to simulate, so many people disable them entirely to prevent them from slowing the game down.

Factorio is primarily a game about moving items around the world, and consequently has several methods of doing so: Trains, Belts, and Bots. Trains carry very large quantities of items very quickly, but require special tracks, stations, fuel, and unloading systems. Belts are conveyor belts on the ground that carry items dropped or placed on them, and bots are flying robots that can pick up and carry items between special containers. Transitioning between these systems is relatively easy, and also easy to move items from these systems to individual factory pieces for processing. When items are in trains, they don’t count as individual actors, only the train does, making them very FPS efficient for moving items around. Similarly for bots. They’re very highly optimized, and when in storage or being carried by bots, the game engine only needs to consider individual bots. Belts, however, have to consider every item on them individually. In a large factory, this can be hundreds of thousands of items updated individually, making conveyor belts very inefficient. Thus, for a long time, belts were essentially abandoned, much to the chagrin of portions of the player base. Bots were simply too efficient, and belt based factories couldn’t compete with bot based ones in terms of scale.

Luckily, Factorio’s developers were aware of this discrepancy, and recently rectified it with a serious efficiency improvement to belts, bringing them equal to bots in terms of FPS efficiency. Suitability, convenience, and throughput potential are still important arguments to the community (but not this article).

Another area of inefficiency was fluids. From crude oil to refined oils, petroleum, plastic, lubricant, and sulfuric acid, Factorio has a complex manufacturing web of fluids and refineries. Unfortunately, fluids are transported via pipes using a crude and somewhat obscure fluid simulation. Unfortunately, it was also a very inefficient fluid simulator, and refinery complexes built as intended by the game tended to be very inefficient for their size and throughput, making them a regular pain point for very large factories. In fact, for a long time, it was more efficient to barrel the fluids and transport them with bots rather than use actual pipes. This was terribly inconvenient, requiring large barreling and unbarreling stations at every refinery component, and a very spread out refinery design. It was more efficient for simulation speed, so people did it anyway.

Fluids are also relevant for power generation. Factorio has 3 different power sources, Steam, Solar, and Nuclear. Steam and Nuclear both use energy sources to boil water to steam, and then steam engines or turbines to convert the steam into electrical power. Not only was steam a fluid, but the heat pipes Nuclear reactors used to distribute heat to their boilers were coded as fluids as well, making both of these techniques very FPS inefficient. Mining the uranium to fuel the nuclear reactors also requires pumping sulfuric acid through the mining installations, another very expensive process. Solar, on the other hand, as essentially a multiply instruction, counting the number of panels and multiplying by the current solar output. Although very space inefficient compared to nuclear, Solar is and will likely continue to be the go to power source for very large factories for the foreseeable future. Luckily, a rework of fluid transport is coming soon, promising both more accurate and more efficient fluid simulation.

Although we’ve been discussing “very large” factories, and how much the game cares about optimization, it’s surprising how quickly your FPS falls even at moderate factory sizes if you don’t pay attention to these issues. If have a moderate belt based factory powered by several large nuclear reactors, you can see serious FPS dips.


Conventional wisdom says that these game should stop the player before they get to this point: hide the warts and inefficiencies behind hard limits so players don’t have to consider these issues: so you don’t have to be a software engineer to understand the game and do amazing things. I would assert, however, that there is a market for games which don’t do that. Games where you can rip the limiters off and really let the game run wild, or games which don’t have limits in the first place, and let you do whatever stupid crazy thing you want, as long as you can design it to run fast enough, or are willing to wait long enough. Games that give players the tools to, within the context of the game, do what they want how they want. Games which essentially let players take ownership of their creations, to deal with the game engine and the computer on their own terms, unrestricted by the conventional wisdom that “games shouldn’t slow down or crash.” Mods are definitely part of this (34 of these games allow modding in some capacity), but they let you reach and exceed conventional limits in the base games themselves.

Whenever you start engaging with games like this, feels like you’re doing things the game designers and programmers never intended, that you have gone even further beyond what was expected, and into uncharted territory6. This likely isn’t the case: the developers probably to a certain extent expect someone like you to play the game like this, but when your FPS chugs, the server starts glitching, and you start thinking about algorithms, Big O notation, and breaking limits, it can certainly feel like you’re in uncharged territory. That’s really what this is about: a feeling of real exploration and novel discovery, of interacting with and considering issues that precious few other people have.

[Edit 10/7/2019]. If you can get past the slightly breathless presentation this video on second person perspectives in video games executes a “limit break” in the game Driver: San Fransisco in order to explore a novel game experience for longer than the timed mission permits. Although seemingly a glitch, I theorize that the developers made this possible on purpose so that exploratory gamers could appreciate the incredible work that went into the sophisticated camera system that made a second person perspective possible in a racing game.

  1. I usually see Consumer vs. Professional software as an question of UI, and of discoverability and ease of use vs. productivity. This is most apparent when comparing, say, Apple’s iOS with Maya, Blender, or the all programming languages. It’s also very apparent, however, in World of Warcraft UI trends, where the difference between the stock consumer UI and the custom UIs built by top end raiders is total: they have nothing in common.

  2. Games tend to lock their game simulation to either the clock or the frame count. If locked to the clock, the game moves forward at the same speed regardless of the frame rate, producing choppy but playable games. If the game is instead locked to frame count, decreasing frame rates slows the entire game down instead, because everything moves the same amount per frame regardless of how fast the frames come. Frame-locked physics systems always know what their time slice is, but clock-clocked physics systems have to deal with simulation ticks potentially spanning much larger amounts of time than expected. If the physics system identifies collisions with naive collision detection code, a very large time slice can have the collision happen essentially between frames, leading to choppy and glitchy gameplay.

  3. Path of Exile - The Forbidden Build by OMGItsJousis. [return]
  4. Maximizing Framerate on the Dwarf Fortress wiki.

  5. Much has been made of the potential for the game to have a sequel, either in space or on another world (mods for both are available, I think), but in the base game, launching a rocket simply gives you “Space Science”, allowing you to continue your never-ending quest for more science.

  6. This is part of what makes Minecraft’s Far Lands so interesting. If you want to see a game visibly break but try its best to keep chugging, or see game features that were clearly not developer intended, that article and its attending pictures are a real treat.


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